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• By O. Morreale

## Elements of Art: Form and Volume

We will practice tone by Painting a Gray Scale or Value Scale.

Let's first answer the questions below?

Questions:

• What is a form?

• Do you remember what a geometric shape is? Name some.

Shading exercise 1: Shade in the cylinder and cube, cone shapes below;

Think about the shapes ansd make sure that when you shade you follow the lines of shape. For instance: whwn shading a circle use circular and round lines.

FORM and VOLUME:

Form is an element of art. At its most basic, a form is a three-dimensional geometrical figure (i.e.: sphere, cube, cylinder, cone, etc.), as opposed to a shape, which is two-dimensional, or flat.

A form always has three dimensions; length, width and height. When you stand next to an object you can go round it and see the three dimensions.

Volume (three-dimensional) can be simulated in a two-dimensional work (like a drawing) thanks to the use of light and shadows, perspective, etc.

Volume: A Shape in three dimensions. E. g. square to cube.

Questions:

1. Think of different light sources.

2. Is there any difference between natural and artificial light?

3. What happens when there is no light?

4. What happens when an object stands in front of the light?

5. Will the shade be the same if we change the position of the light?

Exercise 2: Create and label a value scale that has at least 5 colour values.

Value Scale is a tool used to measure value.

Light and shadows are always visually define objects. Before you can draw the light and shadows you see, you need to train your eyes to see different values of lights in different objects. Values are the different shades of grey between white and black. We use values to translate the light and shadows to create the illusion of a third dimension.

A Successful Artwork has a Full Range of Value in your artwork.

Artworks that exhibit a full range of value are generally successful. It doesn't matter the type of art you are creating. As long as there are dark values in harmony with light values, your artwork will most likely be aesthetically pleasing.

There are two kinds of shadows that occur when one light shines on an object, a cast shadow and a form shadow.

• Cast shadow: When an object blocks a light source it creates a shadow. A cast shadow is not a solid shape but varies in tone and value. The farther a cast shadow is from the object the lighter and softer and less defined becomes its edges.

• A form shadow is the less defined dark side on an object not facing the light source. Form shadows are subtle shadows, but they are essential for creating the illusion of volume, mass and depth.

Questions:

1. Where are the light values? Look for the lightest areas on the object. The very brightest of the lightest values are called highlights.

2. Where are the dark values? Dark values often reveal the sections of the object that are in shadow. By locating shadows, you can usually identify the light source.

Example of shadows in three dimentional objects.

Shading an egg shape exercise : Can you use different types of shading techniques to shade in textures on an egg shape head? Think about the shape and make sure that when you shade you follow the lines of the shape. For example, when shading an ellipse using rounded lines.

Using Cross Countour Lines to Improve Your Painting

What is the difference between cross contour lines and contour lines? What are cross contour lines used for?

Line is the most fundamental element of art. You will learn the concept of cross contour lines and it’s effects on form and light. You will learn how to use cross contour lines to give the illusion of form and light.

Contour (outline) lines are simply "outlines". We typically use contour lines to define the edges of objects and details within them. Contour lines are visible lines or lines defined by contrast. In other words, we can actually see contour lines in most circumstances.

The best way to understand the concept of cross contour lines is to simply practice drawing them by observing a subject. Simple objects, like a pineapple , work best if you are new to this concept.

This is practical reason for understanding cross contour lines.

Cross contour lines are implied lines that may or may not be visible on the subject. Instead of defining the edges and details of the subject, cross contour lines describe the form. Cross contour lines flow over the form of the object.

This concept is important in communicating form in your drawings and paintings and can help you make smart decisions regarding the direction of your stroke - whether it be with a pencil, pen, or brush.

While cross contour lines can flow in generally any direction, in most circumstances, you'll want to consider lines that flow vertically or horizontally around the form. The brush strokes or marks made with a drawing medium are more effective in communicating the form of the subject if they flow with the cross contour lines.

The strokes that are made with a pencil or a brush should flow in harmony with the cross contours of the subject and in turn, communicate more about the form of the object. When combined with a consistent use of value, the illusion of form in a drawing or painting is easily achieved.

Cross contour lines used to commnunicate the form of the object further and create shows.

1. Students will draw a contour line of the the object

2. Students will trade objects and do another contour line drawing

3. Students will then do a blind contour line drawing

4. Students will trade objects and do another blind contour line drawing

5. Students will trade objects and do a contour line drawing and then enhance that drawing by adjusting line quality

6.Students will then enhance the drawing further by adding cross contour lines to indicate form and value

• By O. Morreale

## Colour Theory Explained: The Elements of Art

Colour is the element of art that refers to reflected light.

Colour theory can be broken down into three parts, colour wheel, colour value, colour schemes, each part of colour theory builds on the previous. Understanding each section will help you understand its importance in the creation of art making.

#### Colour Theory/ Part 1 : Colour Wheel :

The colour wheel is made up of three different types of colours; primary, secondary , and tertiary. The primary colours are red, yellow, and blue. Primary colours can only be created through the use of natural pigments.

Secondary colours are orange, green and purple. Secondary colours are created by mixing equal parts of two primary colours. Yellow and blue will give you green, red and blue will give you purple, red and yellow will give you orange, Secondary and all other colours found on the colour wheel can be created by mixing primary colours together.

Tertiary colours are created by mixing equal parts of a secondary colour and a primary colour together. There are six tertiary colours-red-purple, red-orange, blue-green, yellow-green, blue-purple, and yellow-orange. Notice that the proper way to refer to tertiary colours is by listing the primary colour first and the secondary colour, second.

#### The colours are namely the following; Yellow, Amber, Orange, Vermilion, Red, Magenta, Purple, Violet, Blue, Teal, Green, Chartreuse and so on.

Analogous colours are colours that are next to each other on the colour wheel. When used as a colour scheme, analogous colours can be dramatic. An example: Blue- orange, or red- green, or yellow-green, or red-purple.

Complementary colours are colours found directly across from each other on the colour wheel. Complementary colour scheme provide strong contrast. An example: Blue and orange, red and green, yellow-green and red-purple.

#### Colour Theory/ Part 3 : Monochromatic colours :

All the tones, shades, ad tints of one single colour are called monochromatic colours. Colour scheme is made up of one colour and its shade and tints.

Monochromatic colours are the tints, shades and tones of a single hue. You can actually do a lot with a single colour. Your whole painting can be done with one of the twelve colours from the colour wheel! All of these colours add up to twelve and form the RYB (red, yellow, blue) colour wheel.

So, monochromatic colours can be created for any of these twelve colours from the colour wheel. Let's take a look at the colour wheel now!

#### Colour schemes of green: For example, in the below image we see seven different shades/tints/tones of green. Now these are nothing but monochromatic colours, which can be made by mixing different proportions of white, grey and black.

Colour schemes of yellow: In the same way we see different shades/tints/tones of yellow. There are 5 shades in this colour scheme which are made by mixing white, grey and black with yellow. Many other shades of yellow can be created like this.

A monochromatic blue skies and mountain.

A monochromatic yellow tree.

#### Summary: Color Theory Terms and Definitions:

Colour : Element of art derived from reflected light. We see colour because light waves are reflected from objects to your eyes.  Colour wheel: Colour spectrum bent into a circle.   Primary colours: The most basic colours on the colour wheel, red, yellow and blue. These colours cannot be made by mixing.  Secondary colours: Colours that are made by mixing two primary colours together. Orange, green and violet (purple).  Tertiary colours: Colours that are made by mixing a primary colour with a secondary colour.  Hue: The name of the colour.  Intensity: The brightness or dullness of a colour. DO NOT CONFUSE WITH VALUE.  Colour value: The darkness or lightness of a colour. Ex pink is a tint of red.  Tints: Are created by adding white to a colour.  Shades : Shades are created by adding black to a colour.  Optical colour: Colour that people actually perceive-also called local colour.  Arbitrary colour : Colours chosen by the artist to express feelings or mood.

A Sunset Landscape Painting

Exercise 1 :

a) Draw a tree (including a background, middle ground and foreground and label each part.

b) List the colours you have used and label them with warm or cold colour scheme.

Exercise 2:

Write the names of Primary colour:

1.

2.

3.

Write the name of secondary colours:

1.

2.

3.

Fill the following:

BLUE + YELLOW:

RED + YELLOW:

BLUE + RED :

• By O. Morreale

## Principles of Art & Design Unity and Harmony in Texture

Updated: Feb 21, 2021

There are three main points concerning drawing textures:

• Each texture drawing requires a unique mark,

• Value creates texture,

• Form dominates texture,

Introduction to Texture: Texture means how something feels.

Texture is the way something feels to the touch or looks as if it may feel if it were touched. For many, the word texture implies roughness but texture should refer to any tactile quality; smooth, rough, shiny, fuzzy, bumpy, soft, etc.

Texture is subordinate to all the other elements of art. In some ways texture needs the other elements of art (shape, form, value, color, line) more than they need texture.It is because shape and form (3-Dimensional) do more to help us recognize a subject than does texture.

Shape and form must take first priority.

Only then can texture be used with satisfactory results. Think of texture as icing on a cake and think of the cake as form. Icing makes a cake look great but even without the icing it is still a cake. Without the cake, however, the icing is just a pile of goop.

All of these rough surfaces are created by placing many light and dark marks close together. It is the character of the marks, however, that accounts for the many different textures. By using a variety of light/dark, narrow/broad, hard/soft marks, any texture is drawable. A measure of patience is required as well.

#### Types of Texture:

There are four types of texture in art. These types are best understood as a set of pairs.

Actual vs. Implied :

Actual texture is touchable. It’s real. Think about a drawing that makes use of collage. The collaged element would stand in relief against the supporting paper, giving the artwork a texture you can both see and feel. Implied texture is the illusion of a textured surface created through changes in value using mark-making.

Invented vs. Simulated: Invented and simulated texture are really two sub-types of the implied texture mention above. Both create an illusion of texture so the difference is slight. Simulated texture attempts to copy the nuance of a surface as exactly as possible. Invented texture is typically a simplification of sorts, still communicating the essence of a texture or pattern.

Drawing texture boils down to mark-making and edge quality (hardness and softness of a contour). If you make the same type of marks with your drawing tools you will get the same texture over and over. Each unique texture requires a unique mark.

Compare the surface texture of the five spheres below;

Spheres 1,2 and 4 appear smooth because there are few gaps of raw paper showing through the pencil strokes. These three spheres are different types of smooth textures due to edge quality. Spheres 1 and 2 feel hard because their edges are sharp. Sphere 4 feels soft because it’s edge is irregular and made with loose marks. While both spheres 1 and 2 feel hard, one seems to have a matte surface and the other a shiny/reflective surface. It is the sharp shapes and highlights within the shape of sphere 2 that create that impression of a reflective surface.

Spheres 3 and 5 are obviously more roughly textured than 1,2 and 3. Though neither are smooth, 3 feels soft next to 5, again, because of the looser edge quality. Sphere 3 is made of lines while sphere 5 is rendered with little dark shapes. Both of the rough spheres demonstrate how a mingling of light and dark create the impression of texture. Note that, except for the reflective ball, the spheres all demonstrate a clearly defined light source, creating an even change from light to dark. Value and form must always dominate texture.

ROCKS, STONES, SHELLS AND WOOD

Tags:# human figure, #woman, #bones, #skulls #organic

Henry Moore, (1898, 1986), semi-abstract monumental bronze sculptures figures.

"Bones are the inside structure that nature uses for both lightness and strength…so in bones you can find the principles which can be very important in sculpture."

Henry Moore

Henry Moore, Tate Modern, 2014

Henry Moore created this sculpture Recumbent Figure in 1938. The sculpture is of a woman lying down. You may be able to make out knees, breasts and a head, but the forms have been simplified and the figure looks abstract.

Like many of us, Henry Moore would pick up interesting stones, shells and sticks when he went for walks in the countryside. He took these back to his studio and used their shapes and textures to inspire the shapes and textures of his sculptures.

Helmet Head and Shoulders, H.Moore,1952, cast date unknown

He said:

I have found the principles of form and rhythm from the study of natural objects…pebbles and rocks show nature’s way of working stone

The organic shapes of the sculptures in the slideshow below, look as if they have been inspired by found natural objects. Can you see one that reminds you of: Smooth pebbles you might find on a beach? A twisted stick or tree root? A broken seashell? A rough chunk of rock?

In all art and design, the appearance of texture is an important visual element. In design, texture also play a part in a product’s function.

Actual (Tactile) Texture:

Actual texture, or physical texture, means the actual physical surface of an artwork or design. It describes the tactile feeling you would get if you were able to run your hand over an artwork. This feeling can vary depending on the materials the artist used to create the piece of work. It could be smooth, bumpy, coarse, rough or many other textures.Actual texture is the result of the materials used and the artist or designer's technique.

Casa Milà ('La Pedrera') rooftop, Antoni Gaudi, 1906-1912, Stephan Karg / Alamy Stock Photo. The roof terrace of Casa Mila (Antonio Gaudi 1906-12) feature sculptural chimneys in a variety of textures.

Organic forms made of limestone create smooth, flowing shapes. In contrast, broken glass, tiles and marble are used to create a rough texture. These create the appearance of armoured helmets.

Sculpting a Gorilla Head in Model Magic Clay

Think Like a Sculptor to Improve Drawing

A good drawing skills requires learning to see to the shapes that make up an object. In order to draw realistically, we must also learn to draw basic forms from these shapes. All objects can be broken down into these basic forms.

When we are able to put these basic forms together to create the illusion of an object, our drawing improves. In fact, better drawing skills come from understanding the structure of the objects that we are drawing.

Sculptors must understand the objects that they are emulating in order to create a representational sculpture. They must understand the forms, create the forms and then mould the forms further. Drawing is similar to sculpture in many ways, but two similarities stick out to me…

1. Sculptors that use modelling techniques start loosely – Modelling is a sculpture technique in which soft, pliable material is moulded into shape. Clay hand-building is an example of modelling. Sculptors that use this technique start with very loose forms and slowly form them into the finished sculpture. Successful drawing often mimics this technique. We may start with loose lines designed to “find” the shape. Once the shape is defined, it is modelled using value until the final illusion of form is achieved.

2. Sculptors put simple forms together to create the finished, more complex sculpture – The second similarity between drawing and sculpture can found in how these two types of artists approach the creation of the artwork.

Sculptors observe and find the forms of the object that they are sculpting and then create forms to mimic what they observe. We find the shapes and then draw the shapes that we see. When we are successful in putting the shapes together, we are successful with our drawings.

Think like a sculptor when drawing, and your drawing skills will improve.

Sculpting Tools for Beginners

Sculpting can be a rewarding and therapeutic form of art making. Working with hands directly with medium is a unique experience. Unfortunately, many sculpting materials are expensive or not conducive for use by beginners. In this post, We use model magic Crayola air dries material, inexpensive, and most importantly appropriate for beginners.

Before we look at sculpting materials, let’s briefly discuss sculpting processes.

There are basically two “ways ” of sculpting processes fall under. These two “ways” are additive processes and subtractive processes.

Additive sculpting processes involve adding materials to “build up” the sculpture, where subtractive processes rely on the removal of the material to “reveal” the sculpture. Additive techniques include modelling and assemblage. Materials typically used for additive processes include clay, wax, and plasticine.

An example of a subtractive processes is carving. Typical materials used for subtractive processes include wood, plaster, and marble.